10a The league of nations

In the form of a peace treaty Kant applied the maxims of his moral philosophy to the question how policy can preserve peace. Once more it is important to make decisions which are founded on reason and strive for justice. Kant made clear that peace was not a natural state and was dependant on a rightful system. He postulated that the coexistence of states produced damage and consequently the peoples (as well as single persons) were bound to over- come the natural state. The league of nations or a universal state were two possibilities to evolve a state of law and order. A universal state would form a «world republic» which combined all states to one entity. Kant did not think that the creation of a state of nations was to happen immediately: the coexistence of peoples was essential for the political activities and thus a world republic would contradict the peoples’ selfconcept. There could not be a supremacy because of the fact that the single states formed their state concepts internally and consequently differ in their systems. In the end, the states in their undefined condition are not willing to give up their «savageness» because every state «considers this as its splendor». Whereas in a league of nations the single states would stay intact, their sovereignty would largely remain. In this respect Kant pleads for the league of nations. In his opinion a multilateral peace treaty could pre- serve security and freedom and «stop the stream of right avoiding, hostile tendencies».