Deutsch

2a Church

Between Reformation and Revolution the Catholic Church had to deal with complex problems: 1. Papal authority was still challenged. Conciliarism was seeking to focus church on the bishops. Clergymen tried to preserve their influence while the territorial states were a menace to their territories. 2. Science became a new challenge. Before that the Church alone claimed to explain the world: From now on the empirical method was the only reasonable way of seeing the world. As a result there were two reactions: 1. The Jesuit Order was responsible to justify the religious affiliation by valid arguments. A conscious and voluntary choice to take part in a clerical way of life had to be assured by conviction. Due to a scientific education the Jesuits wanted to be able to take part in discussions so that the further development of science would not lead to an inevitable alienation. 2. Church intensified the possibility of an emotional tie by employing baroque forms of expression. The governing body of the church used several types of art and thus tried to emphasize the clerical predominance and importance as did the secular sovereign. As long as emotion and intellect are combined the identification with a conviction could be consolidated.